energy

energy
   The grave repercussions which the oil-shock of 1973 had on the Spanish economy (repeated in the early 1980s) eventually persuaded the government to introduce an energy plan in order to reduce the country's dependence on imported oil. Despite an oil-substitution policy Spain still depends on oil for over 50 percent of its primary energy needs (or two-thirds of final energy consumption). Increasing use is being made of natural gas (replacing town gas), although this also has to be imported, mostly from Algeria. Just under 20 percent of the primary energy consumption is derived from coal, but Spanish coal is both expensive to mine and highly polluting. Four-fifths of the coal mined is directly consumed by the steel and cement industries. Nuclear power accounts for a little over 15 percent of primary energy consumption (see also nuclear energy), while hydraulic power and windgenerated power together account for some 5 percent. In terms of electricity production (as distinct from primary energy consumption), thermal electricity (from coal, oil and gas-fired power stations) accounts for almost half of all electricity generated, nuclear for just over onethird, hydroelectricity for about 15 percent, and other renewable resources for less than 2 percent. Because of rainfall variations, hydraulically produced electricity can undergo wide fluctuations. The fourth National Energy Plan, 1991–2000, seeks an improvement in energy savings, a diversification of supplies, better use of domestic (including renewable) resources, and improved environmental protection. Dependence on external energy sources has not changed, nor is likely to change, very significantly. The electricity supply industry is dominated by two very large companies, Endesa and Iberdrola, each of which consists of a number of regional subsidiaries. There are in addition a number of smaller independent companies, while the high tension national grid is run by Redesa. The main gas supply company is Gas Natural, which supplies 90 percent of the market, while the distribution of oil products is dominated by Repsol, now under increasing competition from BP, Elf, Shell and other foreign multinationals.
   Further reading
   - Salmon, K. (1995) The Modern Spanish Economy. Transformation and Integration into Europe, London: Pinter (chapter 5 offers a full account of the energy sector).
   C. A. LONGHURST

Encyclopedia of contemporary Spanish culture. 2013.

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  • Energy —   The capability of doing work; different forms of energy can be converted to other forms, but the total amount of energy remains the same.   This is broadly defined as the capability of doing work. In the electric power industry, energy is more… …   Energy terms

  • Energy Deliveries —   Energy generated by one system delivered to another system.   ***   Energy generated by one electric utility system and delivered to another system through one or more transmission lines.   U.S. Dept. of Energy, Energy Information… …   Energy terms

  • Energy Receipts —   Energy generated by one utility system that is received by another through transmission lines.   ***   Energy brought into a site from another location.   U.S. Dept. of Energy, Energy Information Administration s Energy Glossary …   Energy terms

  • Energy supply —   Energy made available for future disposition. Supply can be considered and measured from the point of view of the energy provider or the receiver.   U.S. Dept. of Energy, Energy Information Administration s Energy Glossary …   Energy terms

  • Energy Use —   Energy consumed during a specified time period for a specific purpose (usually expressed in kWh) …   Energy terms

  • Energy Efficiency —   Programs that reduce consumption.   ***   A ratio of service provided to energy input (e.g., lumens to watts in the case of light bulbs). Services provided can include buildings sector end uses such as lighting, refrigeration, and heating:… …   Energy terms

  • Energy Intensity —   The relative extent that energy is required for a process.   ***   A ratio of energy consumption to another metric, typically national gross domestic product in the case of a country s energy intensity. Sector specific intensities may refer to… …   Energy terms

  • Energy Policy Act of 1992 — (EPACT)   A comprehensive legislative package that mandates and encourages energy efficiency standards, alternative fuel use, and the development of renewable energy technologies. Public Law 102 486, October 24th, 1992. Also authorized the… …   Energy terms

  • Energy Effects —   Changes at the consumer meter that reflect activities undertaken in response to utility administered programs.   ***   The changes in aggregate electricity use (measured in megawatthours) for consumers that participate in a utility DSM (demand… …   Energy terms

  • Energy Reserves —   The portion of total energy resources that is known and can be recovered with presently available technology at an affordable cost.   ***   Estimated quantities of energy sources that are demonstrated to exist with reasonable certainty on the… …   Energy terms

  • Energy Consumption —   The amount of energy consumed in the form in which it is acquired by the user. The term excludes electrical generation and distribution losses.   ***   The use of energy as a source of heat or power or as a raw material input to a manufacturing …   Energy terms

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